discv5 reports methodology #

Report Title Format #

Reports are titled after the year and calendar week (YYYY-WW) which the data in the corresponding report represent. For example, “Report 2024-09” represents calendar week 09 of 2024.

DHT Crawling #

We crawl the Ethereum discv5 DHT network using the Nebula Crawler [1].

The crawler gets a dump of the routing table of a remote peer by crafting discv5 requests, matching every Kademlia [2] bucket of the remote peer’s routing table. Upon receiving a request for a node ID, a peer will compute in which bucket the target node ID falls in its own routing table, and return the content of this bucket. The buckets contain Ethereum Node Records (ENR), containing information of how to reach the corresponding nodes (fork_digest, attnet, tcp and udp addresses).

The crawler starts by connecting to hardcoded bootstrap nodes extracted from eth2-networks. From there, it learns the routing table of the bootstrap nodes, and can continue crawling discovered peers until all of them have been queried. For future crawls, Nebula doesn’t only depend on the hardcoded bootstrap nodes, but will also try to connect to all nodes discovered in previous crawls.

The discv5 traffic described above is UDP only. In addition, the crawler tries to open a libp2p connection to all discovered nodes. Upon a successful libp2p connection, the crawler can learn additional information, such as user agent, supported protocol, quic addresses etc.

Discover more about Nebula’s operations here.

Data filtering #

The discv5 DHT network is used by other projects besides Ethereum mainnet. Our reports mainly focus on how the discv5 DHT network serves Ethereum mainnet. We only display data for nodes using the latest Ethereum mainnet fork digest 0x6a95a1a9 (dencun).

Sometimes, some nodes refuse to open a libp2p connection with our crawler, for different reasons. Our plots only display online nodes, that are answering the crawler’s queries.

Node classification #

User agents #

User agent information is sourced from the libp2p identify protocol, which necessitates a successful libp2p connection. Given that libp2p connections can sometimes fail, despite a node’s active participation in the DHT, we rely on user agent data acquired from either past or future successful libp2p connections associated with the same node ID. This method ensures that we can accurately capture and utilize user agent information, maintaining consistency in node identification and characterization over time.

Geographical distribution #

We employ MaxMind’s GeoIP services to correlate IP addresses with their corresponding countries, utilizing the detailed resources provided by the MaxMind GeoIP databases. This tool allows us to effectively determine the geographic locations of IP addresses, facilitating accurate country-level mapping and analysis.

Cloud providers #

We utilize Udger’s datacenter identification services to map IP addresses to their respective commercial cloud providers, leveraging the comprehensive Udger datacenter list. This resource enables us to accurately identify and categorize IP addresses based on their association with known data centers.

References #

[1] Nebula Crawler

[2] Kademlia paper

[3] Ethereum Node Discovery Protocol v5